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Title: Dynamical models to explain observations with SPHERE in planetary systems with double debris belts
Authors: Lazzoni, C.
Desidera, S.
Marzari, F.
Boccaletti, A.
Langlois, M.
Mesa, D.
Gratton, R.
Kral, Q.
Pawellek, N.
Olofsson, J.
Bonnefoy, M.
Chauvin, G.
Lagrange, A. M.
Vigan, A.
Sissa, E.
Antichi, J.
Avenhaus, H.
Baruffolo, A.
Baudino, J. L.
Bazzon, A.
Beuzit, J. L.
Biller, B.
Bonavita, M.
Brandner, W.
Bruno, P.
Buenzli, E.
Cantalloube, F.
Cascone, E.
Cheetham, A.
Claudi, R. U.
Cudel, M.
Daemgen, S.
Caprio, V. D.
Delorme, P.
Fantinel, D.
Farisato, G.
Feldt, M.
Galicher, R.
Ginski, C.
Girard, J.
Giro, E.
Janson, M.
Hagelberg, J.
Henning, T.
Incorvaia, S.
Kasper, M.
Kopytova, T.
Lecoroller, H.
Lessio, L.
Ligi, R.
Maire, A. L.
Ménard, F.
Meyer, M.
Milli, J.
Mouillet, D.
Peretti, S.
Perrot, C.
Rouan, D.
Samland, M.
Salasnich, B.
Salter, G.
Schmidt, T.
Scuderi, S.
Sezestre, E.
Turatto, M.
Udry, S.
Wildi, F.
Zurlo, A.
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: EDP Sciences
Citation: Dynamical models to explain observations with SPHERE in planetary systems with double debris belts / C. Lazzoni, S. Desidera, F. Marzari et al. // Astronomy and Astrophysics. — 2018. — Vol. 611. — A43.
Abstract: Context. A large number of systems harboring a debris disk show evidence for a double belt architecture. One hypothesis for explaining the gap between the debris belts in these disks is the presence of one or more planets dynamically carving it. For this reason these disks represent prime targets for searching planets using direct imaging instruments, like the Spectro-Polarimetric High-constrast Exoplanet Research (SPHERE) at the Very Large Telescope.Aim. The goal of this work is to investigate this scenario in systems harboring debris disks divided into two components, placed, respectively, in the inner and outer parts of the system. All the targets in the sample were observed with the SPHERE instrument, which performs high-contrast direct imaging, during the SHINE guaranteed time observations. Positions of the inner and outer belts were estimated by spectral energy distribution fitting of the infrared excesses or, when available, from resolved images of the disk. Very few planets have been observed so far in debris disks gaps and we intended to test if such non-detections depend on the observational limits of the present instruments. This aim is achieved by deriving theoretical predictions of masses, eccentricities, and semi-major axes of planets able to open the observed gaps and comparing such parameters with detection limits obtained with SPHERE.Methods. The relation between the gap and the planet is due to the chaotic zone neighboring the orbit of the planet. The radial extent of this zone depends on the mass ratio between the planet and the star, on the semi-major axis, and on the eccentricity of the planet, and it can be estimated analytically. We first tested the different analytical predictions using a numerical tool for the detection of chaotic behavior and then selected the best formula for estimating a planet's physical and dynamical properties required to open the observed gap. We then apply the formalism to the case of one single planet on a circular or eccentric orbit. We then consider multi-planetary systems: two and three equal-mass planets on circular orbits and two equal-mass planets on eccentric orbits in a packed configuration. As a final step, we compare each couple of values (Mp, ap), derived from the dynamical analysis of single and multiple planetary models, with the detection limits obtained with SPHERE.Results. For one single planet on a circular orbit we obtain conclusive results that allow us to exclude such a hypothesis since in most cases this configuration requires massive planets which should have been detected by our observations. Unsatisfactory is also the case of one single planet on an eccentric orbit for which we obtained high masses and/or eccentricities which are still at odds with observations. Introducing multi planetary architectures is encouraging because for the case of three packed equal-mass planets on circular orbits we obtain quite low masses for the perturbing planets which would remain undetected by our SPHERE observations. The case of two equal-mass planets on eccentric orbits is also of interest since it suggests the possible presence of planets with masses lower than the detection limits and with moderate eccentricity. Our results show that the apparent lack of planets in gaps between double belts could be explained by the presence of a system of two or more planets possibly of low mass and on eccentric orbits whose sizes are below the present detection limits. © ESO 2018.
Access: info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
RSCI ID: 35503116
SCOPUS ID: 85044769335
WOS ID: 000428423000001
PURE ID: 7034986
ISSN: 0004-6361
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201731426
metadata.dc.description.sponsorship: Acknowledgements. SPHERE is an instrument designed and built by a consortium consisting of IPAG (Grenoble, France), MPIA (Heidelberg, Germany), LAM (Marseille, France), LESIA (Paris, France), Laboratoire Lagrange (Nice, France), INAF–Osservatorio di Padova (Italy), Observatoire de Geneve (Switzerland), ETH Zurich (Switzerland), NOVA (The Netherlands), ONERA (France) and ASTRON (The Netherlands) in collaboration with ESO. SPHERE was funded by ESO, with additional contributions from CNRS (France), MPIA (Germany), INAF (Italy), FINES (Switzerland) and NOVA (The Netherlands). SPHERE also received funding from the European Commission Sixth and Seventh Framework Programmes as part of the Optical Infrared Coordination Network for Astronomy (OPTICON) under grant number RII3-Ct-2004-001566 for FP6 (2004–2008), grant number 226604 for FP7 (2009–2012) and grant number 312430 for FP7 (2013–2016). This work has made use of the the SPHERE Data Centre, jointly operated by OSUG/IPAG (Grenoble), PYTHEAS/LAM/CESAM (Marseille), OCA/Lagrange (Nice) and Observtoire de Paris/LESIA (Paris).
We thank P. Delorme and E. Lagadec (SPHERE Data Centre) for their efficient help during the data reduction process. We acknowledge financial support from the “Progetti Premiali” funding scheme of the Italian Ministry of Education, University, and Research. We acknowledge financial support from the Programme National de Planetologie (PNP) and the Programme National de Physique Stellaire (PNPS) of CNRS-INSU. This work has also been supported by a grant from the French Labex OSUG2020 (Investissements d’avenir – ANR10 LABX56). The project is supported by CNRS, by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-14-CE33-0018; ANR-16-CE31-0013). Quentin Kral acknowledges funding from STFC via the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, Consolidated Grant. We thank the referee Dr. A. Mustill for useful comments.
CORDIS project card: 226604
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