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|Link between Technically Derived Energy Efficiency and Ecological Footprint: Empirical Evidence from the Asean Region
Khan, M. A.
Rehman, F. U.
|Link between Technically Derived Energy Efficiency and Ecological Footprint: Empirical Evidence from the Asean Region / D. Khan, M. Nouman, J. Popp et al. // Energies. — 2021. — Vol. 14. — Iss. 13. — 3923.
|The sustainable environment has been a desired situation around the world for the last few decades. Environmental contaminations can be a consequence of various economic activities. Different socio-economic factors influence the environment positively or negatively. Many previous studies have resulted in the efficient allocation of inputs as an environment-friendly component. This paper investigates the effects of energy efficiency on ecological footprint in the ASEAN region using balanced panel data from 2001 to 2019. First, this paper technically derives the energy effi-ciency, using the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) of the translog production type of single output and multiple inputs. Findings of the SFA show that the Philippines and Singapore have the highest energy efficiency (94%) and Laos has the lowest energy efficiency (85%) in the ASEAN region. The estimated average efficiency score of the ASEAN region was around 90%, ranging from 85% to 96%, indicating that there is still 10% room for improvement in energy efficiency. Second, this study employed the panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model to explore the short run and long run impact of technically derived energy efficiency on ecological footprint in the ASEAN region. Results of the panel ARDL model show that energy efficiency is a reducing factor of ecological footprint in the long run. Moreover, energy efficiency plays a significant role to control the environmental contaminations. In addition, results of this study also explored that urbanization is an increasing factor of ecological footprint, and investment in agriculture is also beneficial for the environment. Moreover, to obtain the directional nature of the associations between the ecological footprint and its independent variables, this paper has employed the paired-panel Granger causality test. The results of the paired wise panel Granger causality test also confirm that the energy efficiency, ur-banization, and investment in agriculture cause ecological footprint. Finally, this study recom-mends that efficient utilization of energy resources as well as investment in agriculture are neces-sary for sustainable environment. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
PANEL ARDL MODEL
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFECTS
GRANGER CAUSALITY TEST
STOCHASTIC FRONTIER ANALYSIS
|Funding: Project no. 132805 has been implemented with support provided from the National Research, Development, and Innovation Fund of Hungary, financed under the K_19 funding scheme and supported by the János Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (BO/00095/18 and BO/8/20).
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