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Title: Accretion Bursts in High-Mass Protostars: A New Test Bed for Models of Episodic Accretion
Authors: Elbakyan, V. G.
Nayakshin, S.
Vorobyov, E. I.
Garatti, A. C. O.
Eislöffel, J.
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: EDP Sciences
EDP Sciences
Citation: Accretion Bursts in High-Mass Protostars: A New Test Bed for Models of Episodic Accretion / V. G. Elbakyan, S. Nayakshin, E. I. Vorobyov et al. — DOI 10.3176/proc.2008.1.06 // Astronomy and Astrophysics. — 2021. — Vol. 651. — L3.
Abstract: Aims. It is well known that low-mass young stellar objects (LMYSOs) gain a significant portion of their final mass through episodes of very rapid accretion, with mass accretion rates up to ∗ ≥ ∼10-4 M· yr-1. Recent observations of high-mass young stellar objects (HMYSOs) with masses M≥ 10 M· uncovered outbursts with accretion rates exceeding ∗ ≥ ∼10-3 M· yr-1. Here, we examine which scenarios proposed in the literature so far to explain accretion bursts of LMYSOs can also apply to the episodic accretion in HMYSOs. Methods. We utilise 1D time-dependent models of protoplanetary discs around HMYSOs to study burst properties. Results. We find that discs around HMYSOs are much hotter than those around their low-mass cousins. As a result, a much more extended region of the disc is prone to the thermal hydrogen ionisation and magnetorotational activation instabilities. The former, in particular, is found to be ubiquitous in a very wide range of accretion rates and disc viscosity parameters. The outbursts triggered by these instabilities, however, always have too low of an ∗ ≥ and are one to several orders of magnitude too long compared to those observed from HMYSOs to date. On the other hand, bursts generated by tidal disruptions of gaseous giant planets formed by the gravitational instability of the protoplanetary discs yield properties commensurate with observations, provided that the clumps are in the post-collapse configuration with planet radius Rp 10 Jupiter radii. Furthermore, if observed bursts are caused by disc ionisation instabilities, then they should be periodic phenomena with the duration of the quiescent phase comparable to that of the bursts. This may yield potentially observable burst periodicity signatures in the jets, the outer disc, or the surrounding diffuse material of massive HMYSOs. Bursts produced by disruptions of planets or more massive objects are not expected to be periodic phenomena, although multiple bursts per protostar are possible. Conclusions. Observations and modelling of episodic accretion bursts across a wide range of young stellar object (YSO) masses is a new promising avenue to break the degeneracy between models of episodic accretion in YSOs. © 2021 ESO.
Access: info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
SCOPUS ID: 85109219321
PURE ID: 22821450
ISSN: 0004-6361
DOI: 10.3176/proc.2008.1.06
metadata.dc.description.sponsorship: Acknowledgements. We thank the anonymous referee for an insightful report, which helped to improve this Letter. We thank Andrey Sobolev for useful discussions. V. E. and S. N. acknowledge the funding from the UK Science and Technologies Facilities Council, grant No. ST/S000453/1. This work made use of the DiRAC Data Intensive service at Leicester, operated by the University of Leicester IT Services, which forms part of the STFC DiRAC HPC Facility ( V. E. also made use of funds from the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (State assignment in the field of scientific activity, Southern Federal University, 2020). E. I. Vorobyov acknowledges support from the Russian Science Foundation grant 18-12-00193. A. C. G. has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No. 743029).
RSCF project card: 18-12-00193
CORDIS project card: H2020: 743029
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