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|Title:||Rise of the War Machines: Charting the Evolution of Military Technologies from the Neolithic to the Industrial Revolution|
Bennett, J. S.
|Publisher:||Public Library of Science|
Public Library of Science (PLoS)
|Citation:||Rise of the War Machines: Charting the Evolution of Military Technologies from the Neolithic to the Industrial Revolution / P. Turchin, D. Hoyer, A. Korotayev et al. // PLoS ONE. — 2021. — Vol. 16. — Iss. 10 October 2021. — e0258161.|
|Abstract:||What have been the causes and consequences of technological evolution in world history? In particular, what propels innovation and diffusion of military technologies, details of which are comparatively well preserved and which are often seen as drivers of broad socio-cultural processes? Here we analyze the evolution of key military technologies in a sample of pre-industrial societies world-wide covering almost 10,000 years of history using Seshat: Global History Databank. We empirically test previously speculative theories that proposed world population size, connectivity between geographical areas of innovation and adoption, and critical enabling technological advances, such as iron metallurgy and horse riding, as central drivers of military technological evolution. We find that all of these factors are strong predictors of change in military technology, whereas state-level factors such as polity population, territorial size, or governance sophistication play no major role. We discuss how our approach can be extended to explore technological change more generally, and how our results carry important ramifications for understanding major drivers of evolution of social complexity. © 2021 Turchin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
|metadata.dc.description.sponsorship:||This work was supported by: a John Templeton Foundation grant to the Evolution Institute, entitled "Axial-Age Religions and the Z-Curve of Human Egalitarianism" (HW, PF, PT); a Tricoastal Foundation grant to the Evolution Institute, entitled "The Deep Roots of the Modern World: The Cultural Evolution of Economic Growth and Political Stability" (PT); an Economic and Social Research Council Large Grant to the University of Oxford, entitled "Ritual, Community, and Conflict" (REF RES-060-25-0085) (HW); a grant from the European Union Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No 644055 [ALIGNED, www.aligned-project.eu]) (HW, PF); a European Research Council Advanced Grant to the University of Oxford, entitled (Ritual Modes: Divergent modes of ritual, social cohesion, prosociality, and conflict" (HW, PF); a grant from the Institute of Economics and Peace to develop a Historical Peace Index (HW, PF, PT, DH); and the program (Complexity Science,) which is supported by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency FFG under grant № 873927 (PT).|
|CORDIS project card:||H2020: 644055|
|Appears in Collections:||Научные публикации, проиндексированные в SCOPUS и WoS CC|
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