Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10995/101480
Title: Gravitoviscous protoplanetary disks with a dust component: III. Evolution of gas, dust, and pebbles
Authors: Elbakyan, V. G.
Johansen, A.
Lambrechts, M.
Akimkin, V.
Vorobyov, E. I.
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: EDP Sciences
Citation: Gravitoviscous protoplanetary disks with a dust component: III. Evolution of gas, dust, and pebbles / V. G. Elbakyan, A. Johansen, M. Lambrechts, et al. — DOI 10.1051/0004-6361/201937198 // Astronomy and Astrophysics. — 2020. — Vol. 637. — A5.
Abstract: Aims. We study the dynamics and growth of dust particles in circumstellar disks of different masses that are prone to gravitational instability during the critical first Myr of their evolution. Methods. We solved the hydrodynamics equations for a self-gravitating and viscous circumstellar disk in a thin-disk limit using the FEOSAD numerical hydrodynamics code. The dust component is made up of two different components: micron-sized dust and grown dust of evolving size. For the dust component, we considered the dust coagulation, fragmentation, momentum exchange with the gas, and dust self-gravity. Results. We found that the micron-sized dust particles grow rapidly in the circumstellar disk, reaching a few cm in size in the inner 100 au of the disk during less than 100 kyr after the disk formation, provided that fragmentation velocity is 30 ms-1. Due to the accretion of micron dust particles from the surrounding envelope, which serves as a micron dust reservoir, the approximately cm-sized dust particles continue to be present in the disk for more than 900 kyr after the disk formation and maintain a dust-to-gas ratio close to 0.01. We show that a strong correlation exists between the gas and pebble fluxes in the disk. We find that radial surface density distribution of pebbles in the disk shows power-law distribution with an index similar to that of the Minimum-mass solar nebula regardless the disk mass. We also show that the gas surface density in our models agrees well with measurements of dust in protoplanetary disks of AS 209, HD 163296, and DoAr 25 systems. Conclusions. Pebbles are formed during the very early stages of protoplanetary disk evolution. They play a crucial role in the planet formation process. Our disc simulations reveal the early onset (<105 yr) of an inwards-drifting flux of pebble-sized particles that makes up approximately between one hundredth and one tenth of the gas mass flux, which appears consistent with mm-observations of discs. Such a pebble flux would allow for the formation of planetesimals by streaming instability and the early growth of embryos by pebble accretion. We conclude that unlike the more common studies of isolated steady-state protoplanetary disks, more sophisticated global numerical simulations of circumstellar disk formation and evolution, including the pebble formation from the micron dust particles, are needed for performing realistic planet formation studies. © ESO 2020.
Keywords: HYDRODYNAMICS
PROTOPLANETARY DISKS
STARS: FORMATION
DENSITY OF GASES
GASES
GRAVITATION
HYDRODYNAMICS
SOLAR POWER GENERATION
STARS
FORMATION AND EVOLUTIONS
GLOBAL NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS
GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY
HYDRODYNAMICS EQUATION
NUMERICAL HYDRODYNAMICS
POWER LAW DISTRIBUTION
PROTOPLANETARY DISKS
SURFACE DENSITY DISTRIBUTION
DUST
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10995/101480
Access: info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
SCOPUS ID: 85088701667
PURE ID: 12931317
ISSN: 46361
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201937198
metadata.dc.description.sponsorship: We thank the anonymous referee for a insightful report, which helped to improve this paper. Research was financially supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (State assignment in the field of scientific activity, Southern Federal University, 2020). V.G.E. acknowledges the Swedish Institute for a visitor grant allowing to conduct research at Lund University. A.J. was supported by the Swedish Research Council (grant 2018-04867), the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (grant 2012.0150) and the European Research Council (ERC Consolidator Grant 724687-PLANETESYS). M.L. was supported by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (grant 2012.0150). V.A. was supported by RFBR grant 18-52-52006.
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