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|Title:||Знаки каменотесов на ранневизантийских архитектурных элементах и деталях Херсонеса Таврического|
|Other Titles:||Stonecutters' marks on the early byzantine architectural elements and details of Chersonesus Taurica|
|Authors:||Бернацки, А. Б.|
Biernacki, A. B.
|Publisher:||Изд-во Урал. ун-та|
|Citation:||Бернацки А. Б. Знаки каменотесов на ранневизантийских архитектурных элементах и деталях Херсонеса Таврического / А. Б. Бернацки // Античная древность и средние века. — Екатеринбург: [Изд-во Урал. ун-та], 2009. — Вып. 39: К 60-летию д. и. н., профессора В. П. Степаненко. — С. 35-59.|
|Abstract:||Valid evidence for establishing the place of manufacturing are the stonecutters' marks visible on the architectural elements and details discovered in Chersonesus Taurica. While drawing up their detailed documentation, consisting of descriptions, drawings and photographs, a total of 53 such marks has been recorded. Upon a closer scrutiny of this corpus of sources, it has been concluded that most such marks were composed of two or three characters, often in a ligature. Accordingly, the stonecutters' marks of ΑΠ, ΠΑ, ΘЄ, ΚΥ and TAT in a ligature, which have been encountered in Chersonesus, may be related to individual stonecutters or their teams. The matter is less clear in the case of the single-character marks of Α, Β, Γ, Δ, Є and N, which appear much more frequently on architectural elements and details of various types. Some may well have been stonecutters' marks, but mostly they should be interpreted as indications of the sequence of their installation in the church or the assembly of the shaft, base and capital of a column. Thus, they were marks intended for the construction crews which built the church. Even though certain stonecutters' marks from Chersonesus lack analogs, this may be explained by insufficient study of this matter in other ancient cities rather than by the inexistence of such marks there. Furthermore, it must be remembered that some marks were apparently made during the final stage of the execution of architectural elements and details, close to the place of their installation. In Chersonesus Taurica, such was the case of several Corinthian capitals and Ionic ones with imposts. On the former, the marks appear on the pendentive, the helix or immediately beneath them (inventory Nos. 731/973, 768/973, 675/973), and may have been made only upon the completion of the last stage of execution. The complexity and finery of the decoration of the calathi of these columns as well as the location of the marks would make it impossible to inscribe them at an intermediate stage of manufacturing. Accordingly, they are the marks of the stonecutter or team of stonecutters who did the finishing and assembly of the capitals following their arrival in Chersonesus Taurica. This may explain why two capitals from the Basilica of 1935 bear almost identical marks of "ΘΕ": apparently the finishing work on these items was done by the same person or team. To support this assumption, a similar sign, composed of the same characters but with a different form ("ΘЄ"), appears on two imposts, one of which certainly and the other, presumably, also comes from the Basilica of 1935 (inventory Nos. 139/973, 584/973). The latter impost was subsequently converted into a liturgical bowl, and it was probably at that juncture that another mark ("Γ") was made on its longer side, in our opinion by the stonecutter who was performing that operation. Incidentally, the fact that certain stonecutters' marks are often encountered in mutually distant locations within the Empire may be explained by the fact that they were initials or abbreviations of names popular in Byzantium at that time. Conversely, if certain stonecutters' marks appear both in Chersonesus and in Constantinople, this may imply that the items bearing them came, if not always from the same workshops, then from workshops operating during the same time and representing a similar high standard of the craft, whether in Proconnesus or in Constantinople; this conclusion refers in particular to the early 6 th cent.|
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|Origin:||Античная древность и средние века. 2009. Вып. 39: К 60-летию д. и. н., профессора В. П. Степаненко|
|Appears in Collections:||Античная древность и средние века|
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