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|Title:||Номинация ЦАРЬ и персонажи-«цари» в русских заговорах XVII-XIX вв.|
|Authors:||Топорков, А. Л.|
|Citation:||Топорков А. Л. Номинация ЦАРЬ и персонажи-«цари» в русских заговорах XVII-XIX вв. / А. Л. Топорков // Вопросы ономастики. – 2007. – №. 4. – С. 67-82.|
|Abstract:||The word ‘tsar’ occured in Russian charms [zagovory] of the 17th through the 19th centuries with high frequency. It could refer to real monarchs from the Romanov house or appear in connection with God’s status as Heavenly Ruler. In these charms we also encounter Old Testament tsars and the tsars of antiquity. Satan, the spirit masters of the natural elements, individual natural elements and phenomena and the like may be called tsars. The title of tsar lends a magical text particular nuances: this or that being or natural phenomenon is understood as animate, endowed with reason and power. Ennobling fire, or an ant, or the Forest Spirit [Leshii], or others with the term tsar was intended not only to ease communication with them, win their good will, or demonstrate one’s own loyalty, but also to impose on them a certain program of behavior, implying a relationship of protection towards the performer of the charm, a paternal concern, and a display of mercy. The basis of the interpretation of power in charms with social directionality was the medieval hierarchical principle, combined with the tsar’s image as the highest value, in his association with the Heavenly Tsar. This principle, borrowed from religious beliefs and social life, resulted in a particular schema, projected by means of the charms into the most various spheres of the folk worldview. Their “tsars” were to be found in the world of natural elements and phenomena, among the insects, among the supernatural protectors of natural loci (of the forest, water, land), and in communication with demonic powers. The composers of charms actively used the thematics and phraseology of Christian writings and liturgy, but at the same time they were far from sharing Christian humility and respect for those powers. With rare exceptions, one can hardly find any traces of the sacralization of the monk in the charms. Rather, we may speak of an insufficient distinction between notions of a religious and social character. In the symbolic world of the charm, the protagonist does not aim to abolish the hierarchy, but wishes to enlist the help of those who stand at its head, and thereby to receive strength and power for resolution of his or her problems. For the subject of magical actions it is also a natural wish to appropriate a tsar’s power (even if only for a time and only in imagination) and to occupy himself a place at the head of the social and religious hierarchy (the so-called everyday imposture [bytovoe samozvanchestvo]).|
|Origin:||Вопросы ономастики. 2007. № 4.|
|Appears in Collections:||Вопросы ономастики|
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